In Gaza with Première Urgence Internationale

Interview with Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART, Communications Officer

Destructions in Gaza in 2021 – ©Fadi Harroudah, Première Urgence Internationale

Alain Boinet: Amal, can you explain for our readers what your humanitarian programs were in the Gaza Strip before October 7?

Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART: First International Emergency started its activities in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, first in the North of the West Bank between 2002 and 2003, with the aim of supporting communities impacted by movement restrictions, particularly those located near the partition wall.

The aim was to support small businesses such as bakeries, carpentry and other income-generating activities in order to limit the negative consequences of the isolation of families due to the progressive fragmentation of the territory.

Little by little Première Urgence Internationale has developed its presence in several districts and has strengthened its programs in other sectors of intervention such as access to water, hygiene and sanitation as well as food security and support for agricultural activities.

In parallel, several emergency actions were carried out following the peaks of tension caused over the years in this part of the territory.

In December 2008, the war broke out in the Gaza Strip, causing numerous civilian casualties and major destruction of infrastructure. Première Urgence Internationale then decided to help the families displaced by the bombing through the distribution of hygiene kits and other essential goods such as water tanks. The organization will also supply medical consumables to various health facilities; an operation that will be renewed in 2012, 2014, 2021 and 2022 as part of successive Israeli military operations in the Gaza Strip.

Taking stock of all these years, it can be noted that a twofold approach is needed: to guarantee the civilian population long-term livelihoods, to prevent the negative effects of movement restrictions, but also have the capacity to deploy emergency aid on a large scale until the conflict is resolved.

In 2017, Première Urgence Internationale embarked on a rather new adventure thanks to a partnership with the British Council. The Gaza Strip contains archaeological sites dating back to the Byzantine era. Some farmers discovered remnants while cultivating their land. Among the best known sites today: the Monastery of Saint Hilarion called «Tell Um El-Amr» is the oldest and largest in Palestine. Discovered in 1997, it has been the subject of several archaeological reconnaissance campaigns, conducted under the direction of the French Biblical and Archaeological School of Jerusalem (EBAF). In 2012, it was inscribed on the indicative list of Palestinian heritage by UNESCO.

The First International Emergency teams will support the preservation and protection of the remains of the Saint-Hilarion site as well as the Byzantine Church of Jabālīyah, with the aim of integrating young people living in the Gaza Strip in this process of valuing the Palestinian cultural heritage, and thus opening up new perspectives and generating new vocations.

Saint Hilarion in the Gaza strip – ©Fadi Harroudah, Première Urgence Internationale

The INTIQAL program is born, this term means in Arabic «the transition» or «the transmission», words that resonate both as a challenge and as a pledge of hope for the new Palestinian generations. In 2022, the French Development Agency decided to support this project through funding that will allow the development of economic and training activities around the sites discovered over a period of 5 years.

Première Urgence Internationale was pleased to publish in 2023 the portrait of Asma[1], the first female archaeologist in Gaza who joined the team after studying history and archaeology. Asma was to come to Paris accompanied by 3 other young people at the Louvre Museum as part of the International Exhibition of Cultural Heritage scheduled for early November 2023. She had to present her work and promote her culture to an audience from around the world. She would have been proud to tell this trip to other young people in Gaza. We were all mobilized from the mission in Palestine to the headquarters of First International Emergency to make this moment something unforgettable.

Unfortunately, we had to review our plans…

Alain Boinet: After the Hamas attack in Israel on October 7 and following the Israeli bombing, what situation did your teams then face?

Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART: There are several significant phases. As of October 7, all the teams in Palestine and the headquarters in the Paris region measure the gravity of the situation. It recalls the reflexes developed during the previous wars, namely an immediate confinement of the teams to protect themselves from the bombing and a psychological conditioning to tip over to a humanitarian emergency of large scale.

A crisis unit is immediately opened at the headquarters of the organization to follow the evolution of the context hour by hour and secure our teams on site.

As each time the unknown remains the duration of the bombardments which determines the intensity of the damages and the needs.

But this time, civilian casualties are on both sides, and the hostage-taking of Israeli civilians marks a major turning point in this conflict. The operation will be long and dramatic for millions of people.

The announcement by the Israeli government of a total blockade on the Gaza Strip depriving the population of water, electricity, gas and fuel, raises fears of the worst. Our teams on site and the entire population must be able to count on the stocks of water and food available without knowing how long it will take or how many days they will be able to hold out. No person, no property can enter or leave Gaza.

In previous Israeli military operations, the expatriates of the organizations had the opportunity to exit through the North through the Erez Passage. Humanitarian corridors were opened in Rafah and Kerem Shalom to allow aid to pass during the truces. This time no passage is allowed.

Some members of our teams had to leave their homes because it was heavily impacted by a bombing nearby, some were able to join other members of their families, others took shelter in the communities.

The second significant phase was the announcement of a ground operation entering the northern Gaza Strip and the Israeli army’s order to leave this part of the territory. Our teams had to travel south, like nearly 400,000 people, hoping to be safe from attack. Many missiles have been fired, including in the south in residential areas of Khan Younes and Rafah. We understand then that no zone is secured on the whole territory.

Alain Boinet: Since then, what are the humanitarian consequences for the Gazan population?

Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART: The first attacks quickly displaced nearly 600,000 people. After the Israeli army announced a ground attack in the north, 400,000 people took the road to the south. The Gaza Strip of 2.3 million people sees more than half of its population crammed into an area that was already densely populated before that.

The destruction is massive, health facilities are affected like homes. The number of civilians killed by the bombing is increasing every day.

UNRWA[2] schools have been transformed into reception centres for displaced populations as was the case during previous Israeli military operations in 2008, 2012, 2014 and 2021.

They quickly reached capacity: on 27 October, more than 640,000 people were registered in 150 UNRWA schools across the Gaza Strip, where access to sanitation and minimum hygiene conditions is becoming very complex.

Hospitals must rely solely on generators to ensure the continuity of their services; health facilities have been saturated from the first attacks. Strong images appeared in the media where one saw corpses arranged in the street because the morgues could no longer contain the bodies of the deceased. Rescue teams and the population mobilized as best they could to bury the dead and limit the associated health risks.

The hospitals were also bombed, like Al-Ahli Arab’s while it was in operation and sheltering displaced people. Other major hospitals in Gaza such as Al-Shifa, Al Quds or the Indonesian hospital have received regular messages from the Israeli army to evacuate immediately as attacks would be launched. The World Health Organization says that evacuation is impossible. Many patients are under respiratory assistance: evacuate to go where, how? While the whole Gaza Strip is bombed.

Destructions in Gaza in 2021 – ©Fadi Harroudah, Première Urgence Internationale

Alain Boinet: Humanitarian aid convoys have started arriving in Gaza, how is it going and can you continue your programs?

Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART: The opening of the Rafah crossing is long because it is necessary to obtain the agreement of the three parties, namely Egypt on the one hand, the authorities of Gaza and Israel. The Egyptian Red Crescent is mandated to coordinate humanitarian aid to Rafah, then pass the relay to the Palestinian Red Crescent across the border. Hundreds of trucks were ready to return loaded with humanitarian aid with medicines, supplies for relief and health care, water, hygiene products and others. But the passage itself has been repeatedly bombed, the southern area has not been spared by the attacks, how to ensure a convoy without a ceasefire is guaranteed, if only the time of delivery of this aid?

Trucks are also controlled to prevent weapons from entering the Gaza Strip, so there is a whole accreditation process from Egypt to be part of the convoys.

Première Urgence Internationale has deployed an additional team from Egypt to prepare emergency kits that will be distributed to civilians living in Gaza as soon as the crossing is reopened. Food parcels, emergency shelter kits and medicines are currently being supplied for departure.

It is expected that this team in Egypt will return to the Gaza Strip as soon as possible to support our colleagues on the ground already mobilized with the few means at their disposal.

During the very first convoy, only about twenty trucks were able to cross the border after several days of negotiation. It is now a question of significantly increasing the frequency of these convoys, because the situation in Gaza is dramatic on the humanitarian level: civilians no longer have the opportunity to feed themselves properly, some drink seawater because water desalination machines can no longer operate due to lack of electricity and fuel. According to an OCHA report dated October 16, 2023, the average consumption of water from all sources for all needs has fallen to only three litres per day per person.

In parallel with the humanitarian convoy from Egypt, Première Urgence Internationale was able to direct part of its funds for immediate assistance targeted at 300 families identified among the displaced people. Businesses that still have some supplies of food, water and other essential products open occasionally between strikes which allows a limited supply, but essential to get bread, milk and other. Our teams in Gaza mobilized despite the precarious security conditions to deliver this aid. Several members of the team volunteered to return to work, while at the same time taking care of their loved ones and protecting themselves from the bombing.

In addition, 30 medicine trunks have been integrated into the humanitarian cargo organized from France by the Crisis and Support Center: each trunk can support 500 patients (pediatrics, emergency and general medicine).

Several other components have been opened to meet immediate water, hygiene and sanitation needs as soon as safe conditions allow.

Finally it is also important to mention that the entire Occupied Palestinian Territory is under tension. Teams in the West Bank are also facing an emergency. 109 people died in the West Bank and more than 2,000 people were injured in clashes between Palestinians and Israeli settlers. Some access was cut off following the intervention of the Israeli army, the situation in Gaza causes the uprising of this other part of the Territory. We are concerned about a general flare-up.

Alain Boinet: We are talking about a possible evacuation of foreign nationals from Gaza. Are you going to get your foreign expatriates out and how can you continue or resume your programs?

Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART: Our team in Gaza is mainly Palestinian, and we have two expatriates. It is expected that our two internationals will leave Gaza as soon as possible because their personal situation requires it. However, it is expected that other expatriates will join the team in Gaza as part of the emergency operation as soon as possible.

Programs continue when safe conditions permit. We mentioned above the immediate actions that have already been deployed, it is a question of strengthening them in the days and weeks to come.

Support for the Gaza Functional Rehabilitation Centre, 2021 – crédit Première Urgence Internationale

Alain Boinet: Faced with a war that is likely to last and a possible ground offensive by the Israeli army, how do you think you can or not continue your humanitarian aid?

Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART: First by reallocating our human, financial and material resources to the emergency response. As soon as the hostilities stop, we can measure the extent of the damage. The needs are already huge in terms of health, nutrition, but also the trauma of populations and caregivers who have had no respite to date.

In the 2014 war, the bombing continued for 51 days. There is no question of breaking that record. Today we are 23 days of intensive bombing night and day and we renew our calls to the belligerents and UN member states to declare an immediate and lasting ceasefire.

Infrastructure is on its knees, hospitals such as water and electricity networks have been seriously damaged, it will take a lot of means to return to a minimum situation of access to essential services. It will take a long time.

Our development programs will also be heavily impacted. Our teams need a truce to breathe and see how Première Urgence Internationale can be useful in this drama.

Alain Boinet: How can we in Gaza respect the humanitarian principles of neutrality, impartiality and independence in the face of extreme conflict.

Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART: The First International Emergency position was clear from the outset by condemning all forms of violence against civilians, whether Israeli or Palestinian. On October 8, we launched an appeal to the belligerents of Gaza, Israel and Lebanon to spare the civilian populations and to respect the humanitarian space.

This kind of situation leads us to be humble because we are quickly powerless in the face of the intensity of such violence. Our mandate is to help civilian victims wherever they are and whatever their origin. The treatment of victims of successive tragedies in Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territory shows an asymmetry in the ability to guarantee a protected and secure space for the population.

No civilian must pay the price of armed conflict, and our message if we are to be heard is to secure humanitarian space so that civilians can be spared from fighting, are not held hostage and have access to vital services. Impartiality is based on this fundamental principle of humanitarian action.

It is also important to note that the safety of our field staff is our responsibility. We take care not to expose them to risky situations where their safety would be threatened. Every word is weighed so as not to undermine the priority objective of our mandate, which is to access civilian victims to deliver humanitarian assistance.

Alain Boinet: How would you like to conclude this interview?

Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART: By a message of hope, that Asma always wants to continue her profession as an archaeologist, and that this tragic period has passed, the people of Gaza and the entire Occupied Palestinian Territory and Israel find the strength to overcome their trauma and work together for a lasting political solution.

As humanitarian workers, we continue to work as hard as we can to show solidarity with civilians and to respond to immediate needs. We hope that long-term solutions will be found to prevent this type of tragedy from being repeated or generalized.



[1] Video Link available down the article

[2] United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) is the UN agency for Palestinian refugees in the Middle East


Usefull links:

[Communiqué] Première Urgence Internationale lance un appel aux belligérants de Gaza, d’Israël et du Liban pour protéger la vie des populations civiles. – (

[Communiqué] Gaza : le nouvel ultimatum met en danger plus d’un million de civils – (

[Communiqué] – Gaza : Il faut agir vite ! – (

Retrouvez ici le portrait d’Asma, la première femme archéologue de Gaza

INTIQAL – Les trésors de Palestine

Découverte d’un sarcophage en plomb dans la nécropole romaine d’Ard-al-Moharbeen à Gaza – (



Amal ABOU EL GHAYT – HUART currently works in the International First Emergency Communication Service. After studying foreign languages, she continued her training with a Master’s degree in humanitarian program management in 2005 before taking on several operational coordination roles within various humanitarian NGOs. 12 years of operational experience in different geographical areas (Maghreb, Middle East, Asia, Europe and Latin America) will be complemented by advocacy actions she is leading within Secours Islamique France from 2016 to 2018 and will participate in collective advocacy initiatives at the Istanbul World Humanitarian Summit in 2016, the adoption of the Global Compacts on Migration in 2018 and the writing of France’s first humanitarian strategy the same year alongside other NGOs.

She will also volunteer to participate in the governance of several structures such as the Coordination Humanitaire et Développement (CHD), Action Contre la Faim or the Groupe URD Steering Committee «Learn and Innovate in the face of crises».

Since 2021, it has supported the various missions of Première Urgence Internationale around the world on press relations and communication, but also on humanitarian advocacy issues.

Humanitarian aid in the face of widespread geopolitical disruption

Dammaged water tower, Gaza Crédits : Robin LloydECHO

Will the humanitarian we know today and for decades succumb to the multiplication of conflicts, terrorism as well as the return of high intensity war against a background of fragmentation-recomposition of the world and the return of peoples, nations and empires.

The humanitarian we are talking about here is the access of victims of conflicts, disasters and major epidemics to the relief they urgently need to live. This humanitarian is that of the principles of political neutrality, the impartiality of aid based solely on needs without distinction of any kind and the independence of NGOs from state political actors. Finally, our humanitarian is that of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) which aims to regulate and basically humanize the course of wars.

Does war today change the conditions for humanitarian action?

What do we see today? We see on the one hand a bloody Hamas expedition to slaughter Israeli civilians and on the other hand the State of Israel, which has the right to defend itself, use massive military means on the tiny territory of Gaza or fighters and Palestinian population are very intertwined at the cost of many civilian casualties. IHL is in danger of being lost if we do not return at least to a regular supply of the population and hospitals, with safe areas, not to mention the protection of hostages and civilians.

In Ukraine, we saw Russia, a permanent member of the UN Security Council, invade a country with internationally recognized borders, in the name of a war of preventive reconquest, generating crimes against humanity, a war of very high intensity, as well as a certain lack of understanding of neutrality as well as impartiality of relief. The war lasts, the Ukrainians are the first response to their own needs, the separatist territories of Crimea, Donetsk and Luhansk in the east of the country are inaccessible to humanitarians who, moreover, must demonstrate their purpose and their added value.

In Afghanistan, after 20 years of war by the United States and NATO against the Afghan Taliban, which finally won, impose sharia law and lead humanitarians to choose between relief for millions of Afghans in the face of famine and respect for the human rights of these same Afghans, particularly Afghan women. Everyone determines his action according to the priority of his mandate!

On the road of the forced exodus of more than 100,000 Armenians from Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia. @Twitter

In the South Caucasus, we saw a state, Azerbaijan, supported by Turkey and a passive Russia, impose a total blockade for 9 months to 120,000 Armenians from Nagorno-Karabakh or Artsakh that no humanitarian organization could no longer rescue. Then launch a lightning attack to drive them away in a few days from their ancestral land in violation of IHL and the negotiations that were then taking place. The issue of international aid is now crucial for Armenia itself, which is threatened.

We could multiply the examples to other regions such as in the case of Sahel countries that export destabilization to all of western Africa or to the Asia Pacific in the process of accelerated militarization around Taiwan. Nor is it necessary to examine in detail the Middle East on the verge of explosion from the epicentre of Gaza which is both a revealer and an accelerator of antagonisms. It is no mystery to anyone that Hamas’ bloody offensive is a proxy war between Iran and the Arab countries aimed at derailing the Abraham Agreement between Israel and these Arab countries against the backdrop of the Palestinian cause.

From 1980 to 2023, what change of era?

War is not new, neither terrorism, nor war crimes, nor even genocide. What is changing, however, is this multiplication of wars against the backdrop of a conflicted recomposition of the world and the obvious weakening of the UN.

In the 1980s, at the time of the East-West conflict, wars took place essentially on the periphery of the «two great». We were dealing with endless «small wars» where humanitarians then found their place between the legitimacy of solidarity and the need for relief in poor countries with little structure and in civil war. This type of situation still exists but it is no longer the only model.

Moreover, what complicates any binary approach between unjust war and just peace, it is the theory of the so-called just war that meets criteria stated since Roman antiquity by Cicero, then by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the MiddleAge until the Geneva Conventions of the post-Second World War. And to distinguish well in Latin the «jus ad Bellum» on the just causes of a war, the «jus in Bello» on the just behaviors and the «jus post Bellum» on the equitable peace agreements. Without forgetting the duty of resistance, developed by the supporters of the duty of interference like Bernard Kouchner.

Iraqi army soldiers patrol the streets on March 1, 2006 in Mosul, Iraq, in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom to retake the city controlled by Daesh. (US Army photo by Spc. Clydell Kinchen)(US Army photo by Spc. Clydell Kinchen)

In 2023, we are experiencing a double background movement that overlaps and fears accelerating each other. There is the active focus of terrorism carried by the most radical Islamist minorities. At the same time there is a powerful aspiration to a multipolar world of what is called the global south, which asserts itself in the face of the so-called western world and its values and which could weaken IHL if we do not know how to promote it as a common value for all without distinction.

The danger of a politicization of the humanitarian.

In this extremely destabilizing context for the humanitarian world, some may have the dangerous temptation to politicize the humanitarian to assert their own personal preferences and promote this or that system of thought or ideology. We must warn them to impose on themselves the recurrent criticism they oppose to States or international organizations when they accuse them of sometimes using humanitarian aid for political purposes.

For those who nevertheless wish to pursue this partisan path, it seems to me that the shortest path would be to engage politically without using a humanitarian screen that would have everything to lose in legitimacy, consistency and confidence, including their partners and public opinion, both here and on the ground. Not to mention the internal divisions that this would generate within each organization and within the humanitarian community itself.

Henri Dunant
“Un souvenir de Solférino”













Continue in the humanitarian path called «dunantist» in reference to the founder of the Red Cross, Henri Dunant, during the battle of Solferino in 1859, which bases the humanitarian principles already mentioned (humanity, neutrality, impartiality, independence), which does not exempt us from thinking about what the Germans call «zeitenwende» or change of era and its consequences on the new conflictual contexts of humanitarian aid.

The need to adapt.

This also does not exempt humanitarians from making their «aggiornamento» and evaluating their limits as a force of proposal, influence and effectiveness in the service of populations in danger. In this online review «Humanitarian Challenges», we have initiated this reflection and we will continue it as with this editorial that participates in it.

Thus, I believe that respect for so-called universal values can and must be compatible with respect for human diversity, which is a wealth. Diversity of peoples and cultures that want to be recognized and respected and whose most minority are by definition the most threatened with disappearance or oppression. Biodiversity is well and rightly protected. Let us also protect humanity one and diverse.

Humanitarian aid is more necessary than ever to save more and more lives at risk. The humanitarian crest line is always the path of humanist commitment, impartiality, risk-taking to allow access to relief for populations in danger.

The international humanitarian situation and the modalities of its action will be at the heart of the 5th National Humanitarian Conference (CNH) which will be held in Paris and which will be the opportunity to present the 3rd edition of the Humanitarian Strategy of France for the period 2023 – 2027.

Alain Boinet.

President of Humanitarian Challenges.


PS/ Your support even modest (faireundon) is essential to continue publishing this journal and to develop it.



Alain Boinet

Alain Boinet is the president of the online journal Défis Humanitaires and the founder of the humanitarian association Solidarités Humanitaires, of which he was executive director for 35 years. In addition, he is a member of the Humanitarian Consultation Group at the Crisis and Support Centre of the Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs, a member of the Board of Directors of Solidarités International, the French Water Partnership (PFE), the Véolia Foundation, the Think Tank (re)sources.




Discover the Défis Humanitaire 82th Edition :