The 16th edition of the Global Humanitarian Assistance Report 2019 is published by Development Initiatives. You will find below the full report in English. Enjoy your reading.
International humanitarian assistance increases by 1% in 2018, but by 30% since 2014.
Figure 1: International humanitarian assistance, 2014–2018
Source: Development Initiatives based on OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) Financial Tracking Service (FTS) and UN Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) data and our unique dataset for private contributions.
Notes: Figures for 2018 are preliminary estimates. Totals for previous years differ from those reported in previous Global Humanitarian Assistance reports due to deflation and updated data (see our online Methodology and definitions). Data is in constant 2017 prices.
• In 2018, total international humanitarian assistance from governments and EU institutions and estimated contributions from private donors reached US$28.9 billion. This represents a rise of just 1% from 2017.
• Over the past five years total international humanitarian assistance has grown by 30%, driven equally by public and private donors.
International humanitarian assistance from Middle East and North of Sahara region grows in 2018
Figure 2 : International humanitarian assistance from governments by donor region, 2009–2018
Source: Development Initiatives based on OECD DAC, UN CERF and UN OCHA’s FTS data.
Notes: OECD DAC data for 2018 is preliminary. Funding from OECD DAC donors includes contributions from EU institutions. OECD country naming has been used for regions, except for Middle East and North of Sahara, which have been combined. ‘Other regions’ includes the combined total of regions where funding was below US$500 million in every year over the 10-year period. Calculations only include humanitarian assistance spent internationally, not in-country (see our online Methodology and definitions). Data is in constant 2017 prices.
• The volume of international humanitarian assistance provided by governments in the Middle East and North of Sahara region rose in 2018, with contributions from the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia increasing to US$2 billion and US$1.3 billion, respectively.
• In 2018 the volume of international humanitarian assistance provided by governments in North and Central America and in Europe fell, by US$446 million and US$1 billion, respectively.
• The 20 largest donors in 2018 accounted for a greater share of all assistance from governments and EU institutions than in 2017 (up from 95% to 98%).
Multi-year contributions from governments increase to 17% of funding in 2018.
Figure 3 : Multi-year contributions from Grand Bargain member states to first-level recipients, 2016–2018
Source: Development Initiatives based on data provided bilaterally and UN OCHA’s FTS.
Notes: INGO: international NGO; RCRC: International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. Data for all years is preliminary as data collection is ongoing. The dataset shown in the chart covers 24 government donors that are Grand Bargain signatories. Of these, eight donors – who represent 55% of all international humanitarian assistance provided by public donors – directly provided data on multi-year funding to Development Initiatives. For the remaining 16 Grand Bargain member states, data on multi-year humanitarian funding was taken from UN OCHA’s FTS where available. Multi-year funding also refers to funding agreements ranging between 12 and 24 months when defined as multi-year by the donor. ‘Other’ includes: academia/think tanks, government agencies, private sector organisations, other multilateral agencies and undefined organisations. Data is in constant 2017 prices.
• Preliminary data shows that the volume of multi-year humanitarian funding provided by governments to first-level recipients has grown steadily since 2016, rising from close to US$1 billion to US$2.9 billion in 2018, when it accounted for 17% of all humanitarian assistance from governments.
• In 2018, 64% of this funding was provided to UN agencies.
• The proportion of total funding UN agencies and international NGOs reportedly received as multi-year contributions grew from 1.1% in 2016 to 5.4% in 2018.
Proportion of unearmarked funding received by nine UN agencies decreases to 17%
Figure 4: Earmarked and unearmarked humanitarian-related contributions to nine UN agencies, 2014–2018
Source: Development Initiatives based on data provided bilaterally by UN agencies.
Notes: The calculations comprise earmarked and unearmarked humanitarian and humanitarian-related contributions given to the Food and Agriculture Organization, International Organization for Migration, UN Development Programme, UN OCHA, UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UNICEF, UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees in the Near East, World Food Programme and the World Health Organization. Data is in constant 2017 prices.
• In 2018, the proportion of funding reported as received by nine UN agencies as unearmarked decreased from 18% in 2017 to 17%.
• While, by volume, unearmarked funding has risen since 2014, from US$2.2 billion to US$2.8 billion in 2018, this growth has been outstripped by greater increases in volumes of earmarked funding, from US$9.3 billion to US$13.5 billion.
Volume of cash and voucher programming increases by 10% in 2018.
Figure 5: Global volumes of cash and voucher assistance programming, 2015–2018
Source: Development Initiatives based on data provided bilaterally by implementing agencies and UN OCHA’s FTS.
Notes: Data for 2018 is preliminary. Programming costs are estimates for organisations that only provided the amount transferred to beneficiaries. The RCRC started to systematically track cash and voucher assistance in 2017. Data is in current prices.
• Global volumes of humanitarian cash and voucher assistance grew by 10% from 2017 to 2018, to a total of US$4.7 billion.
• Growth from 2017 to 2018 was largely driven by an increase in cash and voucher assistance programming by UN agencies, while volumes distributed by NGOs and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (RCRC) remained at a similar level.
• The apparent increase of US$1.4 billion from 2016 to 2017 in the global volumes of cash and voucher assistance programming was largely driven by newly available data from the RCRC.
Small rise, to 3.1%, in direct funding to local and national responders
Figure 6: Direct funding to local and national responders reported to UN OCHA’s FTS, 2018
Source: Development Initiatives based on UN OCHA’s FTS data.
Notes: Data is in constant 2017 prices. RCRC national societies that received international humanitarian assistance to respond to domestic crises are included as national responders. For organisation coding methodology, see our online Methodology and definitions.
• International humanitarian assistance going directly to local and national actors has increased from 2.9% in 2017 to 3.1% in 2018.
• National governments received 2.6% of total international humanitarian assistance (most of the 3.1% passed directly to local and national actors), with national NGOs and local NGOs receiving 0.3% and 0.1%, respectively.
10 largest recipients account for 64% of country-allocable humanitarian assistance in 2017.
Figure 7: 10 largest recipients of country-allocable humanitarian assistance, 2017
Source: Development Initiatives based on OECD DAC, UN OCHA’s FTS and UN CERF data.
Notes: Data is in constant 2017 prices.
• In 2017, the 10 largest recipients received 64% of all country-allocable humanitarian assistance, up from 59% the previous year.
• Syria, Yemen and South Sudan alone accounted for 30% of total country-allocable assistance.
• Of the assistance directed to the 10 largest recipients, 59% went to countries in the Middle East and North of Sahara region, and 34% to countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
Domestic resources make up only 58% of all resources in countries with consecutive humanitarian appeals.
Figure 8: Resource mix in countries with consecutive humanitarian appeals and other developing countries, 2017
Source: Development Initiatives calculations based on OECD DAC, UN OCHA’s FTS, UN CERF, UN Conference on Trade and Development, World Bank and International Monetary Fund data and data from peacekeeping budgets and funding snapshots.
Notes: Government revenue may include grants for Turkey and Yemen. Negative flows for net portfolio, short-term debt and foreign direct investment have been set to zero at the country level. Countries with ‘consecutive appeals’ are those that had UN-coordinated humanitarian appeals in at least both 2017 and 2016. Countries may also have had prior appeals in consecutive years.
• In 2017, non-grant government revenue accounted in aggregate for only 58% of all available resources to countries with humanitarian appeals for two or more consecutive years.
• This compares with other developing countries where non-grant government revenue accounted for 75% of all available resources.
• In total, humanitarian assistance made up 8% of available domestic resources in countries with consecutive humanitarian appeals and just 3% of all available domestic and international resources.
33% of extremely poor people live in countries with consecutive humanitarian appeals
Figure 9: Share of people living in poverty and extreme poverty who also live in countries with consecutive humanitarian appeals
Source: Development Initiatives based on World Bank PovcalNet, World Development Indicators, International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook, Demographic Health Surveys, Afghanistan Living Conditions Survey 2016–2017, Equatorial Guinea Poverty Profile, Libya National Socio Economic Survey and Somali High Frequency Survey.
Notes: Poverty data are for latest year available. Extreme poverty is defined as living on less than $1.90 per person per day (2011 purchasing power parity (PPP).
Countries with consecutive humanitarian appeals for two or more years:
- Contain 9% of the global population
- Accommodate just over a fifth (21%) of the global population in poverty, living on less than $3.20 per day
- Accommodate a third of the global population in extreme poverty (33%), living on less than $1.90 per day.
Comparing funding flows to 27 countries over the first years of a protracted crisis response highlights the relationship between development and humanitarian assistance
Figure 10: Humanitarian assistance and non-humanitarian ODA compared with amounts received in the first year of crisis
Source: Development Initiatives based on OECD DAC, UN OCHA’s FTS and UN CERF data.
Notes: Data for 27 protracted crisis response countries. These are countries which have had at least five consecutive years of humanitarian response plans at any point between 2000 and 2017 (with 2017 being the latest year for which country-level development finance data is available).
• Comparing funding flowing in aggregate to 27 countries over the first years of a protracted crisis response shows that development assistance reduces at a faster rate than humanitarian assistance rises.
• In the fifth year of crisis, humanitarian assistance was in aggregate US$2.9 billion higher than in the first year of crisis, while non-humanitarian official development assistance (ODA) was US$3.8 billion lower.
• Aggregate data masks significant variations between individual crisis contexts but highlights questions about what drives humanitarian and development financing decision-making at country level, and the extent of coordination between humanitarian and development financing processes.
ODA loans to protracted crisis response countries increase by 394% between 2012 and 2017.
Figure 11: % change in ODA loans to protracted crisis response countries and other developing countries, 2012–2017
Source: Development Initiatives based on OECD DAC and UN OCHA’s FTS.
Notes: Data for 34 protracted crisis response countries. These are countries which have had at least five consecutive years of humanitarian response plans between 2000 and 2017 (with 2017 being the latest year for which country-level development finance data is available). Data for seven countries entering the fifth consecutive year of a humanitarian appeal in 2018 or 2019 is also included.
• Between 2012 and 2017, ODA loans provided to countries with a protracted crisis response increased by 394%.
• This compares with an increase of 40% in the volume of ODA loans going to other developing countries between 2012 and 2017.
• Loans made up 27% of total ODA in 2012, rising to 36% in 2017.